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LSU Globalization Social Movements Account Deficit & Bretton Woods Institutions Essay

LSU Globalization Social Movements Account Deficit & Bretton Woods Institutions Essay

Question Description

I’m working on a political science multi-part question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Please answer the following 8 questions:1)

What is globalization?

2)Explain what a Current Account Deficit is and why a country’s current account deficit is a concern for the international community.

3)Explain the role of the Bretton Woods institutions (IMF, World Bank, and GATT/WTO) in globalization. Note any positive and negative effects of the Bretton Woods institutions.

4)How has globalization impacted social movements?

5) Explain hegemonic stability theory and the role(s) of the hegemon in the global arena. Then explain whether hegemonic stability theory current trends in international relations with regard to the likelihood of interstate war.

6) How has the nature of war changed in the current “global era”?

7) Read the article “The_Future_of_New_Nationalism.pdf download” and explain the intersection and influence of globalization and New Nationalism? Ensure you explain whether “New Nationalism” is indeed new and if is new, what makes New Nationalism “new”. .

8)Analyze the United Nations’ declaration on cyber security and explain how the declaration typifies (or not) the nature of the relationship between the state and the UN in its approach to governance and international law.

The UN Ongoing Working Group on Cyber (March 2021)

Recognized

  • The developments in information and communications technologies (ICTs) have implications for all three pillars of the United Nations’ work: peace and security, human rights and sustainable development.
  • The imperative of building and maintaining international peace, security, cooperation and trust in the ICT environment has never been so clear.
  • States are developing ICT capabilities for military purposes.
  • The use of ICTs in future conflicts between States is becoming more likely.
  • Both State and non-State actors, including terrorists and criminal groups, use ICT capabilities.

States also concluded that ICT activity contrary to obligations under international law that intentionally damages critical infrastructure or otherwise impairs the use and operation of critical infrastructure to provide services to the public, could pose a threat not only to security but also to State sovereignty, as well as economic development and livelihoods, and ultimately the safety and wellbeing of individuals.

States Reaffirmed:

  • International law, and in particular the Charter of the United Nations, is applicable and essential.
  • States shall seek the settlement of disputes by peaceful means such as negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement.
  • States should avoid and refrain from taking any measures not in accordance with international law, and in particular the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Further common understandings need to be developed on how international law applies to State use of ICTs. Adopt:
  • The need to develop voluntary, non-binding norms of responsible State behavior, which can reduce risks to international peace, security and stability because norms play an important role in increasing predictability and reducing risks of misperceptions, thus contributing to the prevention of conflict.
  • States reaffirmed that norms do not replace or alter States’ obligations or rights under international law, which are binding, but rather provide additional specific guidance on what constitutes responsible State behavior in the use of ICTs. Norms do not seek to limit or prohibit action that is otherwise consistent with international law.

Recommendations:

  • States need to take reasonable steps to ensure the integrity of the supply chain, including through the development of objective cooperative measures,
  • Seek to prevent the proliferation of malicious ICT tools and techniques and the use of harmful hidden functions;
  • Responsible reporting of vulnerabilities.
  • States should not conduct or knowingly support ICT activity contrary to their obligations under international law that intentionally damages critical infrastructure or otherwise impairs the use and operation of critical infrastructure to provide services to the public.
  • Deepening common understandings on applicability of international law requires exchanging views among States and identifying specific topics of international law for further in-depth discussion within the United Nations.
  • Establish confidence-building measures (CBMs), which comprise transparency, cooperative and stability measures toward preventing conflicts, avoiding misperception and misunderstandings, and the reduction of tensions.
  • Maintain national and regional mechanisms and structures, as well as the build of adequate resources and capacities, such as national Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs),
  • Each state needs to build its capacity to prepare and respond to ICT threats.

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